There are many ways to reduce costs in welding operations. Here are 11 ways to get you started:
1. Eliminate Overwelding – Make sure welds are properly sized by following what is called out on the print. Don’t have prints? Develop them! The savings can be huge.
2. Reduce the amount of reinforcement – Multiple pass welds on a groove joint typically end up with a certain amount of reinforcement. The goal is to be just above flush to prevent underfill. However, a 1/8″ reinforcement will not be better than a 3/32″ or even a 1/16″ in most cases.
3. Use proper polarity – In applications were penetration is not important or desired, such as hardfacing, use DC- to achieve greater deposition rates.
4. Reduce gaps - Gaps increase the volume of weld needed.
5. Control flow rates – For processes that require shielding gas make sure no more flow than necessary is used. Too much flow will waste gas and can even create weld defects.
6. Increase electrode diameter - Whether you are stick welding or mig welding, consider using a larger electrode to achieve higher deposition rates.
7. Consider intermittent instead of continuous fillets
8. Select the right process - Don’t TIG weld if MIG will do. Sticking? Can you use a wire process?
9. Properly position the work for optimal efficiency – ideally we want to weld in the flat or horizontal position. Welding out of position (vertical up, overhead, 3 0′clock, etc.) reduces deposition rates because we are limited in puddle size.
10. Use fixtures
11. Use procedures and processes that eliminate spatter – Consider using 90/10 gas instead of C25 or 100% CO2. Consider pulse welding instead of CV welding.
The ability to read and understand weld symbols is very important yet the vast majority of welders have hard time with these symbols. A very small percentage of companies require that welder candidates know how to read symbols. With the shortage of welders in today’s market imposing this prerequisite would not be feasible. What companies need to do is to have training for their welders. The problem is that in many cases manufacturers don’t have someone on staff that can do this. This is usually the case in small to medium size companies. However, if you are in need of this kind of training you can rely on outside help. Vendors, mainly industrial distributors and welding manufacturer’s reps, should have this knowledge. At least highly qualified ones do. They typically can offer this type of training at either a reduced fee or at no cost.
The 9 steps below represent a very basic introduction to weld symbol reading. This is just barely skimming the surface of welds symbols training. If you have a questions please let us know by replying to the post.
Weld Symbols Basics
- Every weld symbol must consist of an arrow and a reference line.
- The arrow may point up or down
- The arrow does not necessarily need to point to the side of the joint that needs to be welded. Sometimes space constraints in the drawing will not allow for the arrow to fit on one side, so the information placed on the reference line will be an indication of whether the weld goes on the arrow side or the opposite side.
- The type of weld joint is indicated by a specific symbol. The American Welding Society has a very nice chart detailing these symbols. Below is a section of it.
Going forward we will stay with Fillet welds since the following information is displayed differently depending on the type of weld joint.
- Information such as size, length and other special considerations will be displayed next to the weld symbol. Location of this information matters. Below we see an example of a fillet weld symbol.
Fillet weld symbols will ALWAYS have the vertical line of the symbol on the left.
- The length of the fillet weld, if it is not the entire length of the join, is displayed to right side of the symbol.
- Intermittent welds are called out using Length and Pitch. As noted above the number to the right of the diagonal line of the fillet symbol is the length (in the US this will be in inches unless otherwise noted). The pitch is displayed to the right of the length and it indicates the distance between centers.
- VERY IMPORTANT: if you ever see a flag at the intersection of the reference line and the arrow do NOT make that weld if you are in a shop. This circle denotes a field weld.
The circle notation means the weld has to go all the way around.
- Several of the diagrams above show the configuration of the base material (graphical representation of the joint by showing how the two pieces come together). This is almost never the case on an actual drawing, and thus it is why it is important to know the different welds symbols shown on the AWS Symbols Chart. A drawing will more than likely look something like this:
This was a very basic introduction to weld symbols. Training programs that we have gone thru or put on for customers range between 4 and 16 hours. Programs are typically tailored to the customer’s need and thus vary widely in length.