The Challenges of Welding in Cold Temperatures

Welding in cold temperatures poses two critical challenges.  First, the brutal conditions welders must endure and second, the performance of steel structures in cold temperatures. Many times we forget about the former by focusing too much on the latter.  If you ever get a chance to talk to welders that have welded in both extreme […]

Why Welds Fail: It’s never just one thing

Weld failures happen all the time.  Some are more serious than others in terms of cost and potential for property damage and bodily harm.  If a weld failure is considered serious it typically gets a lot of attention. Forensics labs and industry experts get called to determine the root cause of the failure.  It may […]

The Reason Behind AWS D1.1 Minimum Fillet Weld Sizes

It's not what you think

Have you ever noticed that there are design rules that prohibit sizing a fillet weld below a certain size for a given thickness of material? If you look at AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2020 Structural Welding Code (Steel) you can find this on Table 7.7.   If you happen to own a copy of AISC 360-16 Specification for Structural […]

Importance of Weld Failure Analysis

Basic guidelines to troubleshoot weld failures

When a weld fails we don’t always know what caused it.  We may try something different and if it doesn’t fail the next time we adopt that as the new standard.  However, it is very important to know the root cause of weld failures.  If we don’t know what caused the failure how can we […]

The Importance of the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)

When we weld we generate enough heat in the welding arc to melt the filler metal and base material.  Or just the base material is we are welding autogenously (as in GTAW without filler).  The edges of the base material melt and combine with the filler metal to create what is called the composite zone.  […]

How to Weld Abrasion Resistant – AR – Plate

Abrasion resistant (AR) steel plate is used in applications requiring abrasion and impact resistance.  It is alloyed with high levels of carbon in order to attain high levels of hardness through the quenched and tempered process.  AR plate is primarily used in conveyors, buckets, dump liners, construction attachments, grates, body armor and ballistic plates. AR […]

Understanding Why Your Welds Crack – Part 2

Direction of Cracks

In our previous post we discussed categorizing cracks based on when they occur.  If you missed this you can read it at Understanding Why Welds Crack: Timing. As discussed in this previous article, cracks can and should be categorized based on three criteria: Timing – did the crack occur immediately after welding (hot crack), did […]

Understanding Why Your Welds Crack – Part I

Timing of Cracks

Cracks are perhaps the only discontinuity for which there is no allowance.  Most codes require that cracks be repaired.  Crosscheck cracks on some hardfacing applications may be OK, but in general, if a weld cracks it’s a big problem. This problem is time consuming and costly in most cases. When you get a crack you don’t […]

Common Mistakes That Lead to Hydrogen Induced Cracking

Even when a qualified welding procedure is in place

Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC), also called hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC) and cold cracking, is a common welding defect when welding heavy steel sections and steels with high carbon content.  If you would like to learn more about the causes of HIC read Factors Influencing Hydrogen Induced Cracking. In the above mentioned article we explained that […]

Recommendations for Welding T-1 Steels

T-1, or ASTM A514 is a high strength steel which is quenched and tempered to provide yield strengths of over 100,000psi (over 690MPa).  The name “T-1” is a trademark of Arcelor Mittal and not an ASTM, AISI or part of other organization’s standard numbering system.  ASTM A514 is primarily used as a structural steel and […]