The Importance of Contact Tip to Work Distance in GMAW

If you look at any of the structural welding codes you’ll notice that contact-tip-to-work-distance (CTTWD) is a variable which must be listed in welding procedure specifications (WPSs).  However, it is not an essential variable, meaning that changes to CTTWD of any amount do not require requalification.   This can seem puzzling to some, especially those […]

Basic (Overlooked) Steps to Develop a Welding Procedure

A welding procedure specification (WPS) consists of a series of welding variables and corresponding allowable ranges. The selection of these ranges is very important.  The idea is that if the welder is within all acceptable ranges he or she will deposit a sound weld, provided of course that the welder has the required skill.  The […]

8 Common Mistakes Made When Using Prequalified Welding Procedures

Before getting into today’s topic we wanted to make you aware of a new resource we are creating and which will be available soon.  Prequalified Welding Procedures for Steel Fabricators will provide a list of prequalified procedures written in conformance with AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code which can be used in the fabrication of carbon […]

How to Use Prequalified WPSs for Stainless Steel in Accordance with AWS D1.6

AWS D1.6 is the Structural Welding Code for Stainless Steel.  Its primary concern is with the structural integrity of weldments and not with resistance to corrosion, creep or sensitization.  As a matter of fact, the word “corrosion” appears only eight times in the 9 clauses of AWS D1.6.  Requirements for these concerns are the responsibility […]

Understanding Why Your Welds Crack – Part I

Timing of Cracks

Cracks are perhaps the only discontinuity for which there is no allowance.  Most codes require that cracks be repaired.  Crosscheck cracks on some hardfacing applications may be OK, but in general, if a weld cracks it’s a big problem. This problem is time consuming and costly in most cases. When you get a crack you don’t […]

The 3 Biggest Problems with Welding Procedures

Have you ever developed, written, qualified or approved a welding procedure? If you have, what was the reason? To satisfy the requirements of a contract?  To control quality? To improve productivity?  To pass an audit?  To help new welders? As welding consultants, CWIs and welding engineers we see hundreds of welding procedure specifications (WPSs) every […]

What is Your Biggest Welding Problem?

Welding is a very complicated industrial process with many different variables.  Because of this there are an innumerable amount of problems we can experience when we weld.  From porosity and spatter to cracked welds, welding problems cost us a lot of money.  In some cases welding problems are severe enough to cause significant delays adding […]

Which Arc Welding Process is the Most Efficient?

This question can be answered very quickly.  Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) and Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) can have 98-99% deposition efficiency.  However, the question is a bit more complicated since when we talk about efficiency we don’t just care about deposition efficiency (how much of the electrode becomes weld metal).  What we care about […]

Why Are Fillet Break Tests Done for Welder Qualifications

When qualifying a welding procedure specification (WPS) for  fillet welds per Clause 4 of AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code you must only perform a single test.  You must do macroetches in three locations as shown below. It is assumed that if we can show root fusion at these three locations that our welding procedure is […]